As described in Chapter 1, the Physical Layer-specific PDU (protocol data unit) is a bit. As the frame is passed down to the Physical Layer, the information is converted into 0 and 1 bits that are sent over the physical media using, for example, electrical signals (for copper links). The data is sent over the wire using a wide variety of methods, such as Ethernet, Token Ring, or other technologies.
Network Interface Cards (NICs)
The NIC (network interface card or network interface controller) connects a device to the network. Most modern PCs and laptops have a built-in . . .
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