Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a fundamental network protocol that allows hosts to learn the Layer 2 address of a device it wants to communicate with by sending a query based on the Layer 3 address of the specific device. Details about the way ARP functions can be found in Chapter 5.
After the addresses are learned using the ARP process, Layer 2 addresses are cached for a period of time on the machine (e.g., workstations, network devices, etc.) so they can be used immediately in future communications without the need to send additional ARP requests.
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