In a switched network, VLANs separate devices into different collision domains. Additionally, VLANs are also used to separate devices into different subnets. Devices within a VLAN can communicate with each other without the need for routing, assuming that these devices reside within the same subnet. However, devices in separate VLANs require a routing device to communicate with one another. Traditionally, IP routing and any Layer 3 functions, such as LAN default gateway functionality, were primarily implemented on routers. This entailed using multiple physical router interfaces (in different VLANs) to provide gateway and routing functionality between different VLANs, or using a . . .
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